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It is important to guide your reader back to the sources of the information you have used, and to give credit to the person who created the information in the first place.

What to look for:

  • Who created the information?
  • When did they post or publish it?
  • What is the name of the book, article, picture ....  that you used?
  • Where does the reader get it from (url or publisher information)?

On this page are some useful tools and examples of reference lists to help you to cite and reference your sources.

As you reference, be aware of copyright and how it works.

Why is Referencing important?

Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism!
Plagiarism is using someone elses work in your assignment without acknowledging where it came from.  It is a type of academic misconduct for which there may be significant consequences.  Read our Plagiarism guide for more information.

Example of a reference:

Author, Initial. (Year). Title of the book (number of edition). Publisher. 

Bruce, T. (2011). Cultivating creativity: For babies, toddlers and young children (2nd ed.). Hodder Education.

Number of edition:

  • 1st edition - You do not need to include (1st ed.).
  • Revised edition - (Rev. ed.). 

How to cite and reference a book?

A book available in print / from library database, written by an individual author

In text citation:

Coleman (2020) states that ... OR ... (Coleman, 2020). 

Reference list entry:

Coleman, H. (2020). Polish your academic writing. Sage Publications.

A book available in print / from library database, written by two authors

In text citation:

Boxall and Purcell (2022) indicate ... OR ... (Boxall & Purcell, 2022). 

Reference list entry

Boxall, P. F., & Purcell, J. (2022). Strategy and human resource management (5th ed.). Bloomsbury Publishing.

A book available in print / from library database, written by three or more authors

In text citation:

Bryant et al. (2018) suggest that ... OR ... (Bryant et al., 2018). 

Reference list entry:

Bryant, B. J., Knights, K. M., Darroch, S., & Rowland, A. (2018). Pharmacology for health professionals (5th ed.). Elsevier.

Chapter in an edited book, three authors of chapter, two editors of book:

In-text citation:

Mackey et al. (2011) ... OR ... (Mackey et al., 2011).

Reference list entry:

Mackey, J. E., Nicholas, M., & Maxwell, L. (2011). Student learning in a faculty-student practice clinic. In M. J. Bradshaw & A. J. Lowenstein (Eds.), Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions (5th ed., pp.459–474). Jones and Bartlett.  

A book with no author?

In text citation:

Italicise the title of a book, brochure or report. For example:

 (Encyclopedia of business and finance, 2014) or Encyclopedia of business and finance (2014) states ...

Reference list entry:

Encyclopedia of business and finance (3rd ed.). (2014). Gale Cengage Learning.

Find re-useable Images

No attribution licences (no referencing required):