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Referencing (APA, IEEE)

What is IEEE Referencing?

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) Referencing is a numerical referencing system in Engineering. It is simple and unobtrusive in the document and has two main features:

The citation is a number:

  • A number is given to a source when it is first used in the document
  • Numbers are assigned based on the order in which the sources appear (i.e., first source to appear is [1], the second source is [2], and so on)
  • Once a source has been given a number it is always referred to by that same number

The Reference list - It is a straightforward numerical list of the sources as they have appeared in the document. Each source is made easily traceable for the reader by including five pieces of data: Author(s)TitlesPublication detailsLocationDate.

In-text citations:

As indicated in [1] ... Other studies [2], [3] pointed out that ...


[1] J. R. Jenneson, Electrical Principles: The Electrical Trades, 7th ed. Sydney: McGraw-Hill Education, 2019. 

[2] K. Doyle, "Far North locals feel let down during drought, but council working hard on solutions," RNZ. (accessed Feb 25, 2019)

[3] A. Jovanovic, D. Lime and O. H. Roux, “Integer Parameter Synthesis for Real-Time Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 445–461, May. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TSE.2014.2357445

Online citation generators can help you to create your reference list.

When using Zoterobib select the citation style IEEE (With URL)

On item records in Search Rapua, you can generate an IEEE reference by clicking on citation and then selecting IEEE

Note: It is a good idea to check that references are correct before using them in your assignment or report.